It occurs when micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites evolve resistance to antimicrobial substances, like antibiotics, antifungals and others.
This occurs naturally during adaptation to the environment or when microorganisms come into contact with antimicrobials.
The appearance of multiple resistant bacteria of human and veterinary origin is accelerated due to the inappropriate or excessive use of antimicrobials. As a result, medicines that were once effective in people and animaly become less effective or not effective at all, leading to a reduced ability to treat infections. It seems that antibiotic resistance is inevitable.
Therefore many different solutions have been proposed to solve this problem. As the ability to pump antibiotics out of cells is a pump coin feature of the microbes and their pathogenic relatives and is the most widespread form of resistance to most classes of antibiotics that is why it is very important to discover molecules inhibiting efflux pumps as well as to reveal the inhibition mechanisms. There is another possibility to investigate similar substances as competitors of antibiotics.
Derivatives of carbazole could be considered as potential efflux pump inhibitors or substrates. Carbazole is heterocyclic compound[